The integrated wiring system is like a foggy newcomer to the newcomer, and it feels very abstract. This article gives a comprehensive introduction to the basics of the integrated wiring system.
The so-called integrated wiring system is a modular, highly flexible information transmission channel used in buildings or between buildings. It is a wiring system that supports the transmission of various information such as voice, graphics and video. It enables multi-product compatibility, modular update, expansion and reorganization, which not only meets the requirements of users for modern systems but also saves maintenance costs.
The integrated wiring generally adopts high-quality standard materials, unified planning and design, and adopts a standardized combined crimping method to form a complete wiring system. Therefore, the integrated wiring system is an important part of the modern interconnected intelligent control system and the basis of the interconnection network.
The integrated wiring system uses an open star topology in which the subsystems of each branch are relatively independent units of operation. The integrated wiring system consists of six subsystems: work area subsystem, horizontal area trunk line subsystem, management room subsystem, vertical trunk line subsystem, equipment room subsystem and building group subsystem.
Integrated cabling systems typically consist of several components with different functions, including transmission media (unshielded twisted pair, large logarithmic cable, fiber optics, etc.), device connection hardware (such as patch panels, connection converters, adapters, standard information outlets) , plugs, etc.) and compatible electrical protection equipment.
These components form a variety of different functional subsystems, each with its own specific functions, built using common standards, which makes it easy to build the entire system, and can be continuously upgraded according to actual needs.
With the development of modern technology, the reliance of intelligent devices on the Internet has become more and more serious. People's awareness and requirements for integrated wiring are constantly improving. It is believed that the openness, reliability and compatibility of integrated wiring technology will be further improved.
Work Area Subsystem (Work Location)
The work area subsystem is mainly responsible for completing the matching and connection between each information point and the equipment terminal.
The system mainly includes non-active accessories such as panels and information outlets (FD-TO) distributed by various servers in the equipment room, jumpers and adapters for connecting information sockets and terminal equipment.
Among them, modern information sockets should support a variety of multimedia devices, including computers, telephones, data terminals and displays. The relevant physical interfaces reserved for these devices can be collectively referred to as information points. Sometimes, information points can refer to computers. , the point can refer to the telephone).
The twisted pair cable can be divided into shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair (UTP). Most LANs use unshielded twisted pair cable as the transmission medium in the LAN to network, and the network cable is twisted pair with a certain distance length and RJ45 connector (commonly known as "Crystal Head", which is a plastic connector).
The machine room is generally used with Category 6 cable, and the T568A/568B universal wiring method is used. Sockets and panels are generally made of flame retardant thermoplastic materials that meet UL requirements.
Horizontal Zone Trunk System (Horizontal)
Horizontal zone trunk subsystem from the wiring closet to the horizontal cable between the work area, floor wiring equipment (distribution frame) and jumper (used as a jumper for the equipment to the integrated wiring network, generally have a connector plug at both ends ) constitutes. The horizontal zone trunk subsystem is an important part of the information transmission interconnection network. Generally, four pairs of unshielded twisted pairs form a star topology. If there is data confidentiality or avoidance of magnetic field interference in the network system, shielded twisted pair (STP) can be used. If there is a large amount of data transmission required, the cable can be connected.
The data point connection cable in the horizontal trunk line subsystem shall adopt Category 6 unshielded twisted pair cable, which can support the transmission rate over 1000Mbps at a certain communication distance (the cable length in the horizontal area should generally be less than 90m), general and standard accessories The use of this system makes the system highly reliable and versatile.
The horizontal zone trunk subsystem can easily manage all information point inputs and outputs according to the requirements of the entire wiring system, and the corresponding jumpers can be re-jumped in the handover room (or wiring closet). The flexibility of the integrated wiring system It has been well reflected in the transformation of system functions.
Management subsystem (Administration)
The management subsystem is generally composed of three parts: wiring equipment, interactive equipment and input/output equipment (I/O). The main equipments are connectors, switches, cabinets, power supplies, distribution frames, and so on.
The inter-administration subsystem provides a means for interconnecting other subsystems. It is a relay station that connects the vertical trunk subsystem and the horizontal trunk subsystem. The interactive device allows reconnection and positioning of the communication lines, which makes it easy to manage the functions of different regional subsystems. The status of the inter-subsystem subsystem is like the portion of the distribution box and junction box in the telephone system.
Vertical trunk subsystem (Backbone)
The vertical trunk subsystem consists of a cable connecting the main equipment room (main distribution frame) and each floor wiring room (distribution frame). The vertical trunk subsystem plays a trunk role in the entire wiring, also known as the backbone. system.
The cable structure of the vertical trunk subsystem is mainly multi-core fiber and large logarithmic twisted pair cable.
Among them, the indoor optical fiber generally adopts eight-core multimode optical fiber, and the transmission speed of a single strip can reach 1 Gbps, and the speed is quite fast. Large logarithmic twisted pair cables generally use 25 pairs of copper cables of more than three types, and different logarithms can be selected according to actual network needs.
As the main channel of network connection, the vertical trunk subsystem should have the advantages of high reliability, frequency bandwidth, large capacity, low bit error rate and strong guarantee.
The vertical trunk subsystem and the horizontal trunk subsystem are mainly responsible for the communication and transmission of the Internet. The main differences are twofold:
(1) The location is different. The vertical trunk subsystems are usually installed in the weak cells in each floor, they are vertically distributed, while the horizontal trunk subsystems are generally installed in a parallel distribution of floors;
(2) Different transmission cables: Vertical trunk subsystems have greater information transmission requirements. Usually, multi-core optical cables or large-diameter twisted-pair cables are used as transmission channels, while horizontal trunk subsystems transmit less. Generally, four pairs of non-transmissions are used. Shielded twisted pair cable connection, shielded twisted pair or fiber optic cable is required for special needs.
Equipment Intersystem (Equipment)
Some places in the equipment room subsystem are also called weak room subsystems, which are places for installing in and out of the line equipment for network conversion and system maintenance.
The equipment room subsystem consists of cables, connectors, and wiring equipment, and is used to connect a variety of common equipment. Equipment should avoid various interferences such as strong static electricity and strong electromagnetic fields. The entrance and exit lines should be partitioned and color-coded, and there should be air conditioning and fire protection systems. The management center of the entire wiring consists of a voice data subsystem between devices.
It consists of cables, wiring devices, routers, switches, etc. in the equipment room (main wiring closet), and is responsible for connecting different devices in the wiring system. The inter-device subsystem is distinct from the inter-office subsystem.
The equipment room subsystem can be regarded as a place for storing public equipment, where the line equipment is placed, network management and related personnel are on duty.
The equipment room subsystem is mainly composed of building incoming equipment, computer network system, digital program control switch (SWITCH), automatic control center equipment, server, voice telephone equipment, monitoring management equipment and security wiring equipment.
The management subsystem (wiring room) is a device that connects the vertical trunk subsystem and the horizontal trunk subsystem. It consists of cables, HUBs, connectors and related supporting hardware in the equipment room. Its function is to Different devices are connected to each other.
The subsystem connects the intersection of the trunk and the intersection of the wiring with the public service system equipment (such as the user program-controlled switch), and can reconnect and locate the network line by using a jumper, which is convenient even when the terminal device is changed or changed. The line is changed so that rewiring can be implemented quickly and concisely.
Building Group Subsystem (Campus)
The building complex subsystem is typically composed of cables and corresponding wiring equipment, which is a communication device and device that extends the cables of one building to another.
The building group subsystems are generally laid by underground pipelines, and detailed planning and scientific wiring are required before deployment. The laying of twisted pair cables or optical fibers in pipelines shall comply with the relevant requirements for the requirements for the entry of holes and the laying of telephone pipes. When the distance of buildings exceeds 100 meters, optical fiber connections shall be used. Bridges shall be erected in each sub-chamber, and outdoor underground pipes shall be laid. Leave 2 holes and install electrical protection.
Clearly labeled, clear structure, easy to manage and maintain. In the original, there was no unified planning and management during wiring. Each part was designed and constructed separately. Each system was managed and managed independently. There was no unified management and maintenance. For example, the telephone system, data system and control system were all separate lines. Pick up.
This not only causes difficulties in wiring management, but also costs are high, and the interconnection is not smooth. The integrated wiring adopts unified planning management and unified installation and construction to make the wiring structure clear and easy to manage and maintain.
Priority is given to the purchase of high-quality, advanced materials, using common standards, and a unified and forward-looking modern integrated wiring system requires high-quality, advanced materials. Such as Category 6 unshielded twisted pair, six-core fiber, etc., the transmission rate can adapt to the development needs of the next five years or more.
The fiber optic interface mainly uses three types of ST, SC, and MT-RJ connectors, in addition to FC and LC connectors. The twisted pair modules, panels and connectors are all RJ-45 standard interfaces, and the wiring methods are EIA/TIA-568A and EIA/TIA-568B.
Modular design, easy to upgrade wiring expansion and reorganization The so-called modular design is to reorganize certain wiring elements of the product to form a subsystem with specific functions, and to make the subsystem as a universal module and other product elements. , constitutes a variety of different system functions.
Components in integrated wiring systems, such as information sockets, patch panels, and terminals, are also modular in design and highly versatile.
Modular design combines green design ideas with standardized design methods. On the one hand, it can shorten product development and manufacturing cycles, increase product lines, and quickly respond to market changes. On the other hand, it can reduce adverse impacts on the environment, facilitate reuse, and recycle. , use and treatment, has a strong economic and social.
Star topology for system expansion and system upgrades
Traditional wiring generally adopts bus topology, because the utilization rate of the interconnection network is not high, the cable standard used by the traditional wiring is low, and the price is cheap, but the lack of planning often causes redundancy and space waste, and cannot be directly upgraded. The replacement cost is high. The modern integrated wiring adopts a star topology, and the layout is strictly in accordance with international standards. The reserved ports are sufficient, and generally can meet the data transmission needs of more than five years, which not only improves the working capacity but also provides space for further upgrading and reduces costs. It is cheaper to use standardized accessories and will have corresponding accessories for a long time. In contrast, the integrated wiring function is more powerful, and overall, it can save maintenance costs and upgrade costs. Although the initial installation is expensive and time-consuming, the long-term comprehensive use costs are even lower.
Design layout should be combined with independence and normative
The most fundamental feature of integrated wiring is independence. The bottom layer is physical wiring, which is directly related to the data link layer (subgrade topology) of the network. The network layer and application layer have nothing to do with physical wiring. That is to say, system software, network transmission protocols, and application software are not related to physical wiring. Integrated wiring is designed to meet the transmission of a variety of signals, such as voice, data and so on.
In the overall design process of the wiring, according to the user's recent and long-term voice, data and multimedia usage requirements, combined with the capital capacity and specific work, the standard of the selected cables and other accessories should be higher than the current standard. Cables shall not be placed in elevators or in water supply, gas supply, heating pipeline shafts, or in strong electric shafts. Plastic trunking and metal bridge protection shall be used for burying.